[25] This enormous garden has survived relatively intact. Some Chinese gardens have a lotus pond with a nearby lotus pavilion. A small island was constructed in the middle of the pool, where trees were planted, which had skewers of roasted meat hanging from their branches. Plants – which provide beauty, texture and meaningArchitecture such as pavilions and teahouses provide a place for reflection, conversation and refreshments. Other Chinese gardens have temples, bridges, galleries and towers. "My Loveable Pavilion" from the Couple's Retreat Garden (1723–1736), Keyuan garden in Guangdong Province, (1850). For scholars, the pine was the emblem of longevity and tenacity, as well as constance in friendship. The Khan himself goes every week to see his birds sitting in mew, and sometimes he rides through the park with a leopard behind him on his horse's croup; and then if he sees any animal that takes his fancy, he slips his leopard at it, and the game when taken is made over to feed the hawks in mew. Hundreds of Japanese scholars were sent to study the Chinese language, political system, and culture. He also used the park for theatrical events; he launched small boats on his stream with animated figures illustrating the history of China. [76], In the 18th century, as Chinese vases and other decorative objects began to arrive in Europe, there was a surge of popularity for Chinoiserie. 9 Flowers and trees also contrast with sharp, harsh architectural lines. A terrace gave visitors a view of the lake and the mountains.[19]. The garden was finished in 1122. These patterned paths are not designed by architects, but made by artisans from beginning to end. The most famous garden in Luoyang was The Garden of Solitary Joy (Dule Yuan), built by the poet and historian Sima Guang (1021–1086). [14] The aesthetic properties of plants were highlighted, while numerous books on plant classification and cultivation were published. Carmontelle added a Chinese pavilion to his garden at Parc Monceau in Paris (1772), and the Duc de Choiseul built a pagoda on his estate at Chanteloup between 1775 and 1778. Garden designers took into account the scenes of the garden that would look best in winter, summer, spring and autumn, and those best viewed at night, in the morning or afternoon. The Main Hall of the Retreat & Reflection Garden, A pavilion with a fan-shaped viewing window in the pond of the Humble Administrator's Garden in Suzhou, Long gallery for viewing the lotus pond at the Prince Gong Mansion in Beijing, Garden gate of the Prince Gong Mansion in Beijing. Ji Cheng wrote: "In the heart of the tumult of the city, you should choose visions that are serene and refined: from a raised clearing, you look to the distant horizon, surrounded by mountains like a screen; in an open pavilion, a gentle and light breeze invades the room; from the front door, the running water of spring flows toward the marsh. It was located on the side of a mountain, and included a series of terraces connected by galleries, along with a lake where boats in the form of blue dragons navigated. [46] Pear trees were the symbol of justice and wisdom. The essential buildings of Chinese garden architectures include halls,pavilions,corridors and bridges, etc. Each flower and tree in the garden had its own symbolic meaning. The artificial mountain (jiashan) or rock garden is an integral element of Chinese classical gardens. One section will face north, toward a lotus pond. Rocks are chosen based on their shape, texture, substance, color and softness. Pavilions with movable walls offer a panoramic view of the entire garden. The Venetian traveler Marco Polo is believed to have visited Xanadu in about 1275, and described the garden this way: "Round this Palace a wall is built, inclosing a compass of 16 miles, and inside the Park there are fountains and rivers and brooks, and beautiful meadows, with all kinds of wild animals (excluding such as are of ferocious nature), which the Emperor has procured and placed there to supply food for his gerfalcons and hawks, which he keeps there in mew. The economic prosperity of the Tang dynasty led to the increasing construction of classical gardens across all of China. [23], A third renowned Ming era garden in Suzhou is the Garden of Cultivation, built during the reign of the Tianqi Emperor (1621–27) by the grandson of Wen Zhengming, a famous Ming painter and calligrapher. The shape of the garden pond often hides the edges of the pond from viewers on the other side, giving the illusion that the pond goes on to infinity. Comments / photos for the Dongguan Botanical Gardens page welcome. December 04, 2019. "[44], Lake with water lilies in Liyuan Garden, Wuxi, Pond and viewing pavilion in the Humble Administrator's Garden, in Suzhou. [56] Within the gardens, the individual pavilions and view points were frequently dedicated to verses of poems, inscribed on stones or plaques. The garden is built around a pond, with the Longevity Pavilion on the north side, the Fry Pavilion on the east side, a dramatic rock garden on the south, and the creator's study, the Humble House, to the west. [32][62], The gardens were intended to evoke the idyllic feeling of wandering through a natural landscape, to feel closer to the ancient way of life, and to appreciate the harmony between man and nature.[64][66]. Like the galleries, they are rarely straight, but zigzag (called the Nine-turn bridges) or arch over the ponds, suggesting the bridges of rural China, and providing view points of the garden. During the Kamakura period (1185–1333), and particularly during the Muromachi period (1336–1573) the Japanese garden became more austere than the Chinese garden, following its own aesthetic principles. Small gardens have a single lake, with a rock garden, plants and structures around its edge. Sometimes gardeners make mountains from both rocks and dirt. After his death, the Qin Empire fell in 206 BC and his capital city and garden were completely destroyed, but the legend continued to inspire Chinese gardens. The bamboo, a hollow straw, represented a wise man, modest and seeking knowledge, and was also noted for being flexible in a storm without breaking. Mountain peaks symbolize virtue and stability. It was called the Chengde Mountain Resort, and it occupied 560 hectares, with seventy-two separate landscape views, recreating landscapes in miniature from many different parts of China. New World Press, 2007. Later, in 1772, Chambers published his Dissertation on Oriental Gardening, a rather fanciful elaboration of contemporary ideas about the naturalistic style of gardening in China.[84]. Intricate lattice and shaped doorways frame various scenes and generate anticipation as the garden is slowly revealed. [8], After the fall of the Han dynasty, a long period of political instability began in China. Patrick Carré, Le Jardin de Lettré, Musée Albert Kahn, Besançon, Éditions de l'imprimeur, 2004, pp. Using a fortune amassed during his twenty years in the imperial court, Liang Ji build an immense landscape garden with artificial mountains, ravines and forests, filled with rare birds and domesticated wild animals. Since ancient times, the people built wooden buildings, structures built with rammed earth, and buildings and structures built with stone or brick. The first rock garden appeared in Chinese garden history in Tu Yuan (literally "Rabbit Garden"), built during the Western Han dynasty (206 BCE – 9 CE). It was a calm place for painting, poetry, calligraphy, and music, and for studying classic texts. The most famous garden of the Yuan dynasty was Kublai Khan's summer palace and garden at Xanadu. It had his library, the Hall of Ten Thousand Volumes, and an adjacent garden called the Fisherman's Retreat. In the I Ching, water represents lightness and communication, and carried the food of life on its journey through the valleys and plains. Traditionally, Chinese gardens blend unique, ornate buildings with natural elements. [15], There were two periods of the Song dynasty, northern and southern, and both were known for the construction of famous gardens. Affordable and search from millions of royalty free images, photos and vectors. Streams come into the lake, forming additional scenes. Chinese gardens are constructed to recreate and miniaturize larger natural landscapes. They also symbolize belief in the philosophy laid out by Confucius. Trimming and root pruning, if done at all, tried to preserve the natural form. Limestone rocks that have taken strange shapes due to erosion are among the most valued rocks for Chinese gardeners. Instead, small scenes are set up so that as you wander through the garden, you come upon several intimate settings to view. Chinese Garden Architecture by Nanjing University of the Arts. Only the mountain remained. Classical gardens traditionally have these structures: In addition to these larger halls and pavilions, the garden is filled with smaller pavilions, (also called ting),or “room”, which are designed for providing shelter from the sun or rain, for contemplating a scene, reciting a poem, taking advantage of a breeze, or simply resting. In the center of his garden he had constructed an artificial mountain a hundred meters high, with cliffs and ravines, which he named Genyue, or "The Mountain of Stability." The style became even more popular thanks to William Chambers (1723–1796), who lived in China from 1745 to 1747, and wrote a book, The Drawings, buildings, furniture, habits, machines and untensils of the Chinese, published in 1757. By moving from structure to structure, visitors can view a series of carefully composed scenes, unrolling like a scroll of landscape paintings. "It is born simply of feeling created by the beauty of a scene. In the 4th century BC, a tale in the Classic of Mountains and Seas described a peak called Mount Penglai located on one of three islands at the eastern end of the Bohai Sea, between China and Korea, which was the home of the Eight Immortals. It is a true terrestrial paradise. Feng Chaoxiong, The Classical gardens of Suzhou. An excellent example was the Lion Grove Garden in Suzhou. Garden Architecture Chinese gardens are famous for their variety and delicate craftwork. The willow tree represented the friendship and the pleasures of life. [72], The first European to describe a Chinese garden was the Venetian merchant and traveler Marco Polo, who visited the summer palace of Kublai Khan at Xanadu. He had exotic plants and picturesque rocks brought from around China for his garden, particularly the prized rocks from Lake Tai. In the center was the Pavilion of Study, his library, with five thousand volumes. To the east was a garden of medicinal herbs, and to the west was an artificial mountain, with a belevedere at the summit to view the surrounding neighborhoods. [59], The social and cultural importance of the garden is illustrated in the classical novel Dream of the Red Chamber by Cao Xueqin which unfolds almost exclusively in a garden. [53], In his book, Craft of Gardens, the garden designer Ji Cheng wrote: "The spirit and the charm of mountains and forests must be studied in depth; ...only the knowledge of the real permits the creation of the artificial, so that the work created possesses the spirit of the real, in part because of divine inspiration, but especially because of human effort." [85] Many continental critics disliked the term English Garden, so they began to use the term 'Anglo-Chinois" to describe the style. Ideally, the buildings and structures in a Chinese garden will complement the setting instead of dominating it. Chinese architecture is one of the major categories in the history of world architecture. Emperor Xuanzong built a magnificent imperial garden, the Garden of the Majestic Clear Lake, near Xi′an, and lived there with his famous concubine, Consort Yang. The 13.5-hectare garden is modelled on the northern Chinese imperial style of architecture during the Song dynasty (960–1279 CE) and the Summer Palace in Beijing. Chinese gardens are distinctive in their symbolic use of water, stone, plants, and architecture to create a place of beauty, vibrant with flowing qi, the universal energy. It was built in 1342, and took its name from the collection of fantastic and grotesque assemblies of rocks, taken from Lake Tai. Kings and members of the nobility during the Shang Dynasty (1600–1046 BC) hunted and planted fruits and vegetables in their gardens. The creation of a traditional Chinese garden involved much more than simply combining aesthetically pleasing plants and other design elements. It also makes good use of the principle of the "borrowed view," (jiejing) carefully framing views of the surrounding mountains and a famous view of a distant pagoda. An ancient Chinese legend played an important part in early garden design. After retiring from the government, he passed his time taking boat trips on the lake, playing the cithare and writing and reciting poetry.[13]. The most ancient houses are square, rectangular, or oval. Ideally, the buildings and structures in a Chinese garden will complement the setting instead of dominating it. 2 In smaller classical gardens, a single scholar rock represents a mountain, or a row of rocks represents a mountain range. The other elements of the garden will be arranged around the pond. Zhu Yuanzhang ordered the Yuan palaces in Dadu to be burned down. Green leaves and colorful blooms really stand out against a white setting. Its major attractions are the Wanshou (longevity) Hill and the Kunming (Jade Spring)Lake. Alibaba.com offers 1,062 chinese garden architecture products. "[49], The season and the time of day were also important elements. Some designers opt for a simple rock garden, while others construct miniature mountains from a collection of rocks. Everything is in good taste, and so well arranged, that there is not a single view from which all the beauty can be seen; you have to see it piece by piece. Trans, by David Siefkin. Visitors stroll down patterned pathways and across bridges with hand carved decoration. These gardens were large enclosed parks where the kings and nobles hunted game, or where fruit and vegetables were grown. The two most famous gardens, the Garden of the North (Beiyuan) and the Garden of the South (Nanyuan), both belonged to Shen Dehe, Grand Minister to Emperor Gaozong (1131–1162). [38], A three bay hall with full gable roofline and flat eves in the Retreat & Reflection Garden (1885). 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